Only about 2.5% of the world’s water is ‘freshwater’ and less than a third of this is readily accessible to humans. It has been estimated that around 18% of the world population do not have access to safe drinking water. With the expected population growth, world economic growth and the rise in the standards of living in developing countries there will be increasing demands on water as a resource. In addition the predicted impacts of climate change, such as severe storms, flooding and droughts will affect the availability of freshwater. It has been estimated that by 2025 a third of the world’s population will live in water stressed countries. Water stress is said to occur when annual water supplies drop below 1,700 m3 per person. When annual water supplies drop below 1,000 m3 per person, the population faces ‘water scarcity’, and below 500 m3 ‘absolute scarcity’. The United Nations have further useful information which is available on their website.
In a similar way that products have a carbon footprint, products also have a water footprint. Water is used in manufacturing processes, either as part of the process or for heating, cooling and cleaning. There are risks and challenges facing industries associated with water. These include physical risks; such as the lack of availability of water, too much water (flooding) or water that is unfit to use.
Water is also becoming a key reputational and investor relations issue. In 2010 the Carbon Disclosure project launched the Water Disclosure Initiative which highlights investment risks and opportunities for major global companies.
We recognise the need to use water responsibly and where possible to minimise the use of water in our facilities, especially in countries classified as having ‘high’ or ‘medium’ water stress by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
All of our facilities use water and subsequently discharge wastewater to be treated either on site or by municipalities. We measure the total volume used, volume discharged and the pollutant load that our effluents, primarily from R&D and manufacturing activities, place on the aquatic environment.
At the end of 2011 we had 19 manufacturing facilities located in 15 countries worldwide. Four of these sites are located in countries classified as having ‘high’ or ‘medium’ water stress by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). About 3% of the total amount of water we use globally is from areas with water scarcity, but we recognise our responsibility to use water wisely at all our sites.
Third parties manufacture some key intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredients on our behalf. Since 2005 we have been working with over thirty of our outsourcing partners to measure the environmental impact of this manufacturing activity. The measures selected were waste production and CO2 emissions from energy use. In 2011 we extended these measures to include water. In 2011 we have collected data to understand the amount of water that is used in the manufacturing of these materials and identifying opportunities for reduced use. Read more about our approach to outsourced manufacture.
Objectives and targets
We have introduced a company-wide water reduction target: to reduce absolute water use by 25% by the end of 2015 compared to the 2010 baseline data. To help to achieve the 2015 target all of our manufacturing and R&D sites that use significant quantities or are located in water stressed areas have water conservation plans in place. These plans identify opportunities to reduce and conserve water.
We are committed to transparency and constructive engagement on this topic. As part of this, we make detailed reports available through our Annual Report and this Responsibility section of our website, through disclosure to the Carbon Disclosure Project Water. We follow the G3 Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) to enhance the relevance and transparency of our reporting to our stakeholders.
What's next in this section
We believe that our primary responsibility is to, among other things, reduce our carbon footprint by improving our energy efficiency.Read more
Managing our potential impact on biodiversity is part of our overall commitment to protecting the environment.Read more