Chronic kidney disease

What is chronic kidney disease?

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a debilitating condition in which kidney function is damaged over time.

The kidneys play an important role in filtering waste and fluids, contributing to the maintenance of blood glucose levels and controlling the production of red blood cells. CKD is a global public health issue, affecting an estimated 200 million people worldwide.

Because important commonalities have been found among CVD, CKD and diabetes, we are leading in this complex disease area by jointly addressing cardio-renal-metabolic risks.

Our aim is to address significant unmet needs in the management of CKD complications, and then to evaluate therapies that could modify or even halt CKD progression or provide cardiovascular benefit.

Novel approach to CKD research which aims to address both its complications and underlying causes

We are investing in ground-breaking science to develop new therapies that we believe will help prevent, treat, manage and modify CKD. 


What we're working on

We are exploring renal science within the larger clinical context of cardio-renal-metabolic disease risk factors and comorbidities.

DapaCare programme in renal

The DapaCare clinical programme will explore the CV and renal profile of dapagliflozin in people with and without type-2 diabetes.     

The DapaCare programme currently involves nearly 30,000 patients across randomised clinical trials and is supported by a large real-world cohort study. Within the current programme, two studies are investigating renal endpoints:

Dapa-CKD: An international, event-driven, randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effect of dapagliflozin in addition to the standard of care to prevent the progression of CKD or CV/renal death.

DELIGHT: An exploratory Phase II/III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamics of dapagliflozin and dapagliflozin in combination with saxagliptin in patients with type-2 diabetes, CKD stage 3 and albuminuria. 


Disease area resources

What is Hyperkalaemia?

Hyperkalaemia is a condition characterised by elevated potassium levels in the blood and can occur in those with CKD and heart failure.


Other resources


1. National Kidney Foundation. About Chronic Kidney Disease. Accessed 15 August 2017.

2. National Kidney Foundation. How Your Kidneys Work. Accessed 15 August 2017

3. Ojo A. Addressing the Global Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease Through Clinical and Translational Research. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. 2014; 125: 229-246.

4. U.S. National Institutes of Health. “A Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of ZS in Patients With Hyperkalemia (HARMONIZE GL).” NCT02875834. 2017. Accessed 15 August 2017.

5. “A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Renal Outcomes and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (Dapa-CKD).” Available at

6. Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on the Incidence of Worsening Heart Failure or Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure (Dapa-HF). Available at

7. National Kidney Foundation. Clinical Update on Hyperkalaemia. 2014. Accessed 15 August 2017.

8. Kovesdy CP, et al. Management of hyperkalaemia in chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2014;10: 653–662.

9. Vardeny O, et al. Incidence, predictors, and outcomes related to hypo- and hyperkalemia in patients with severe heart failure treated with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Circ Heart Fail. 2014;7: 573–579.

10. Jarman PR, et al. Hyperkalaemia in Diabetes: Prevalence and Associations. Postgrad Med J. 1995;71: 551–552.

11. Chomicki J, et al. Presented at 2014 ASH Annual Scientific Meeting & Exposition; May 16th–20th, 2014; New York, NY, USA; P-10.

12. Khosla N, et al. Predictors of Hyperkalemia Risk following Hypertension Control with Aldosterone Blockade. Am J Nephrol. 2009;30: 418–424.

13. Chazard E, Dumesnil C, Beuscart R. How much does hyperkalemia lengthen inpatient stays? About methodological issues in analysing time-dependant events. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2015;210:835-9.

14. Dunn JD, Benton WW, Orozco-Torrentera E, Adamson RT. The burden of hyperkalemia in patients with cardiovascular and renal disease. Am J Manag Care. 2015 Nov;21(15Suppl):s30715. Accessed 23 August 2017.

15. National Kidney Foundation. “Managing Anaemia When You Have Kidney Disease or Kidney Failure.” 2014.

16. Stauffer Melissa E., Fan Tao. Prevalence of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States. PLOS ONE. 2014 Jan;9(1): e84943.

17. Li Ya, et al. Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in Chinese patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease. Medicine. 2016 Jun;95(24): e3872.

18. Obrador GT, Pereira BJG. Anaemia of chronic kidney disease: an under-recognized and under-treated problem. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002; 17 (suppl 11):44-46.

19. Tanaka S, Tanak T, Nangaku M. Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors in chronic kidney disease. Renal Replacement Therapy. 2016; 2: 1-8.

Veeva ID: Z4-9559   

Date of next review: March 2020